Source notes

This page is the home for notes on sources​ (sometimes a summary, usually just a log of the relevant information which is not suited to either biographies or the description of the endeavours themselves. It is very much a work in progress.

[id2] ASKWITH, Richard (2004). Feet in the Clouds: A Tale of Fell-running and Obsession

Some of the best 'first person' writing on (multiple) Bob Graham attempts by the author. Includes some brief material on the origins of fell-running and fell races. Most relevant material for the project is: (1) the discussion of Fred Rogerson and early BGR attempts [p.47]; the description of Naylor's 1972 record [p.176-177]; and some excellent material relating to Naylor's views of McDermott and Hartell [p.186-188]

[id3] ATKINSON, Michael (2001). 'Fell Running and Voluptuous Panic'. American Journal of Play, vol. 4, no. 1

A semi-tickling discussion of the sport of fell-running from a philosophy of sport perspective. No direct relevance.

[id5] BUCKLEY, P. and SMITH R. (2005). 42 Peaks: The Story of the Bob Graham Round

  • General discussion of fell record rules [pp.34-35, id5]

  • Further aspects added to rules [p.20, id5]

  • In 1971 was the first attempt at the 42 when the record was substantively higher. Interesting to mark this point of divergence in the two challenges. One went on to form a Club with now over 2,000 members and growing at an ever faster rate. The other, diminishing at a diametrically opposed rate, converging on the very best of fell athletes [p.20, id5]

  • Interesting Griffin quote on the lack of need for additional rules beyond what Wakefield laid down [p.18, id5]

  • Discussion of peak selection [p.10, id5]

[id16] PALMER, William T. (1903). In Lakeland Dells and Fells

All material of interest is contained within the 'Fell -Walking' Records chapter. Despite its title, there is an amusing introductory discussion of the toll of running downhill (suggesting that the pioneers did not restrict themselves to a walk at all stages) and also of how "fell miles" count for two of every "road mile" [p.63]. The majority of known walks between Elliott (1864) and Johnson (?) are recounted, some in considerable detail.

[id18] SMITH, Bill (19xx). Stud Marks on the Summit: A History of Amateur Fell Racing: 1861-1983

All relevant information taken from the chapter entitled 'The Bob Graham Round and Lakeland 24 Hour Record'. Includes:

  • discussion of BG's peaks vs. BGR peaks, esp. in relation to Steeple [p.87]

  • excellent description of BG's round and background to it [pp.88-89]

[id21] WESTAWAY, Jonathan (2013). 'The Origins and Development of Mountaineering and Rock Climbing Tourism in the Lake District, c.1800-1914'. In The Making of a Cultural Landscape: The English Lake District as Tourist Destination, 1750–2010 

An interesting discussion of the establishment of mountaineering and climbing within the Lake District as a pursuit. Explains clearly the difference between the development of Continental alpinism and Cumbrian mountaineering, in particular the class distinction. The Lakeland culture broke down class barriers and was far more about regional identity. Wasdale was the clear focus of activity. Brief discussion of Coleridge as providing "the first literary description of the peculiarly English sport of fell-walking". Coleridge undertook his 9-day walk in 1802, which included the infamous descent of Broad Stand.

[id25] GRIFFIN, A. H. (1961). Inside the Real Lakeland

Aside from a pen picture of John Wilson Robinson (pp.58-), little of relevance.

[id36] GRIFFIN, A. H. (1963). In Mountain Lakeland

The second of Griffin's books. An excellent chapter exclusively on fell records, with a focus on the Heatons and early 1960s but including significant nineteenth century history. The book is more compendium than narrative. Elements of particular interest include: the specific mountain portraits, a pen picture of Wainwright and a discussion of the origins of mountain rescue in the Lake District.

Includes an excellent discussion of very early fell walking and the first tourists, highly relevant to the origins of peak bagging [from p.33]

The Long Walk chapter [notes up to p.127; [end18]]

  • "At first there were no records as such, for men accustomed to long days in the Alps simply wanted to see how hard a day they could manage in the Lakeland hills" [p.121, id36]

  • Note on guides. Griffin pieces together Lodore guide and Macereth and notes "locals were required by their Alpine CLub clients at that time for their expert knowledge of the ground" [p.124, id36] [and it would not be culturally uncommon for that is what they were used to on the continent]

[id37] GRIFFIN, A. H. (1974). Long Days in the Hills

Good description of post-BG 24 hr records, especially relating to Naylor and Beard [p.93-]. In addition, material on Stan Bradshaw, the second man (after Heaton) to complete the BGR. Finally, some reflections from Graham himself on his '32 round [p.106-]

[id30] THOMAS, Eustace (original article 1951; published 1987). 'Memories of the Fell Record'. From Kinder Scout to Kathmandu: A Rucksack Club Anthology, 1907-1986

  • "I came to recognise that these, after all, were truly the most memorable days, and had been the most worthwhile" [id30, p.128]

  • Notes an interesting anecdote about how his final record was perceived. It was brought to the attention of a mountaineering club - perhaps the FRCC, we do not know - but it transpired the Club passed a resolution that "they would not recognise anything in the nature of racing on the fells". He notes he was "left with the impression that there was something shameful or naughty about my performance" [id30, p.128] Interestingly, the speed which merited condemnation was no more than 2 and a half miles an hour

  • Thomas notes the understood rules of the record as starting and finishing in Keswick, within 24 hours, and include more feet climbed and feet covered than previous records. So he did not perceive this a question of peaks. It would also be difficult to estimate endeavours in the days before the OS 1:25,000 and he describes how a "sensitive altimeter" was taken along practice walks to confirm the approximate number of feet climbed [id30, p.129]

  • "No credit was given in the Fell Record proper for speed as such" - this remains true, subject to a greater number of peaks being gained [id30, p.130]

  • In general, an excellent summary of Thomas' history with the record, including his understanding of the record, preparations, the five attempts and his friendship with Wakefield

[id58] JENKINSON, Henry Irwin (1872). Practical Guide to the English Lake District

No particular interaction with the Lake District 24 Hour Record, but it shows the extent of Jenkinson's Wainwright-esque knowledge of the area. He chose not to reference anything of his endeavour in the chapter entitled “How best to spend a flying visit to the Lakes”.

[id80] CHAPMAN, Spencer (1945). Memoirs of a Mountaineer

Biographical details of the man (obviously!) and a description of [end21]

[id81] CLARK, Ronald (1953). The Victorian Mountaineers

Begins with a discussion about the origins of mountaineering, focusing on the development of Alpinism. Relevant themes (and catalysts) include: availability of transport (in particular, railways to France), leisure time, the urge for scientific discovery (particularly at the advent of Darwinism) and a general desire for exploration. Clark notes the Victorians were wrongly characterised by the twentieth century as 'indoors' people; far from it, they were very hardy. The overwhelming focus of early mountaineering was the Alps.

Contrary to some other sources, do not generally get the sense that Alpinists discriminated on the basis of class. But clearly the the cost and time of travelling to the Alps would have been prohibitive for many 'trade' people.

Dedicated chapter on the genesis of British mountain climbing. From 1850s onwards, Alpine mountaineering started to impact on the activities of local fell-walkers in Britain. The proximity of British mountains to population centres meant people had the opportunity to develop significant proficiency [p.204]. Unlike Alpinism, there was an unwritten law in the early history of British mountaineering that knowledge of climbs should only be passed down by word of mouth [p.203]

Hypothesis on links between clergy and mountaineering, including: "The blunt truth is that many deeply religious men did find, during their mountain excursions, some satisfying reinforcement to their beliefs" [comment: relevant for Elliott and Tucker] [p.111]​

Includes some limited references to Lawrence & Charles Pilkington, Elliott and Robinson, including two pictures [pi4; pi5]

[id82] ABRAHAM, George D. (1923). The Complete Mountaineer (3rd ed.)

A significant volume covering the history of climbing, the basic techniques, a guide to equipment and then extensive descriptions of climbing in different parts of the world (including the Lake District).

Explicit reference to the "Four Fells Record [p.137]​

[id83] BARKER, Ralph (1975). One Man's Jungle

Detailed biography of Freddy Spencer Chapman. Includes detailed account of Freddy's attempt on Wakefield's record, [end21].

Includes a description of Sedburgh school - "Thus fell-walking and cross-country running were grafted on to the mystique" [pp.26-27]. Notes that long afternoons were often free, and Chapman would often use the time to roam the local fells [p.29]. Secured third place in "Wilson's run", a testing fell race run by the school in 1925 [pp.41-42]. Undertook night climbing in Cambridge [pp.59-60; p.68]. Participated in the British Arctic Air Route Expedition 1930-31 - Greenland. On return, sought to prepare for a subsequent (then unfunded) expedition and write a book on the first. But took the opportunity for an attempt on Wakefield's Fell Record (pp.92-93). Clearly linked to Sedbergh background.

On return from the war, had high - perhaps defiant - "I am post-war planning in terms of the Fell Record and Everest". But this was said in the immediate aftermath of his return from a three year internment so we should be forgiving. He struggled with his return. Chapman wanted to go on the Everest expedition but didn't make the cut.​

[id84] HANKINSON, Alan (1972). The First Tigers

From the last quarter of the nineteenth century, UK rock climbing grew and grew until the 1903 accident on Sca Fell. The development of the sport took place near-exclusively in the Lake District during that period [comment: so there is a close association with the fell record]. It was a "golden age" and without a climbing death until 1903 [comment: although seems to be more accident than safety record given the rope techniques employed "perhaps to luck as much as to judgment" [id85, p.76]) [pp.2-3]

Conway postulates a distinction between "mountaineers" and "rock climbers" [comment: perhaps thee is a third: fell wanderers, either walking or running]

Budworth was the first to see the fells as a physical challenge (in the late 1700s). On a fortnight's trip, he covered 240 miles [p.28]. Budworth, Wordsworth and Coleridge perhaps popularised fell-walking for no productive purpose [p.29]

​Notes that "several years before the sport recovered [from Broadrick accident and another at the same time]" (p.172)

[id85] HANKINSON, Alan (1988). A Century on the Crags

​Majority of notes captured within biographies.​

  • Most alpine men regarded British hills as below their dignity [id85, p.21]

  • Dislike for record keeping in the Wasdale Head visitor book. Eschew publicity and keep things for discovery. Eg pilkingtons. [id85, p.23]

[id86] CLARK, Ronald W.; and PYATT, Edward C. (1957). Mountaineering in Britain

The discussion of endeavours has some clear errors, suggesting this source should not be solely relied upon.

Quotes the rules of the record from Wakefield as "The aim of these walks is to ascent the greatest possible number of peaks above 2,000 feet and to return to the starting point within twenty-four hours" [p.217].

[id87] THOMPSON, Ian (2010). The English Lakes

  • “The lakes poets were not the inventors of pedestrianism, but they gave it a tremendous boost.”

  • Ascents of mountains made for pleasure for some time before record walks started to be noted and codified.

  • First recorded ascent of Skiddaw (p.171)

  • Account of Coleridge’s BS descent (p.217)

  • “The alpinists and the Lake District cragsmen belonged to different, but overlapping circles” (p.218)

  • Record fell walking fell somewhere in between rock climbing and tourism; “the rock-climbers we’re spiritually at odds with the Wordsworthians, seeking to challenge nature rather than to commune or become one with her” (p.222)

[id89] DENT, Clinton (ed.) (1892). Mountaineering 

Contains two chapters written by Charles Pilkington, both very general and not relevant for the project. The first is an introduction to guideless climbing; the second is an introduction to hill climbing in the British Isles. The latter demonstrates Pilkington knew the  mountains well, including Ireland and Scotland.

[id90] HOYS, Dudley (1969). English Lake Country

Only useful for its description of Bob Graham and an excellent quotation [id90, pp.121-122]

[id91] CHILTON, Steve (2013). It's a Hill, Get Over It

[need to add to source list]

Various details of post-Graham record holders and records, not yet summarised​​

[id92] CHILTON, Steve (2015). The Round

[need to add to source list]

Hugh Symonds also attended Sedburgh School. He did his BGR with another teacher [id92, pp.184-185]

The book includes references to the following characters but notes not yet made:

  • EBE

  • FSC

  • MHA

  • BGR

  • AHE

  • KHE

  • MMC

  • JNY

[id100] BATEMAN, Josiah (1872). The Life of the Rev. Henry Venn Elliott. 3rd ed. Including a portrait and an appendix containing a short sketch of the life of the Rev. Julius Elliott

H.V. Elliott was perpetual curate of St. Mary’s Brighton and late fellow of Trinity College Cambridge. J. M. Elliott followed this in both respects. HV’s wife was called Julia Marshall. His wife died relatively young, shortly after the birth of Julius.

[id106] PHIZACKLEA, Al (2016). 'Nowt but a Fleein' Thing': A History of Climbing on Scafell

  • On Mickledore: "Best place in the ountry for observing the vertical from the comfort of the horizontal" [p.9]

  • On Pilkingtons: brief mention (p.39); record of 1882 first ascent on Deep Gill (p.43 / p.376)

  • On Broadrick's accident and the mountaineering context: account (pp.88-90, inc. footnotes 5 and 6)

  • Discussion of wartime climbing. Even if not serving in the war effort, transport to the Lake District was difficult [p.112]. Interesting discussion in the change in culture after the war [p.114]

  • On Robinson: first ascent up Professor's Chimney in 1887 [p.376]

[id107] BIRKETT, Bill (2007). Scafell: Portrait of a Mountain

  • On Scafell Pike: confirmed as the highest point in England by the Ordnance Survey in 1860. But it was known to be higher from early nineteenth century, in particular from Otley [p.22]

  • On Broadrick, the accident occurred when the party was seeking to replicate O. G. Jones' 1898 ascent [p.26]

  • Includes material on Coleridge's Broad Stand descent, Otley's Broad Stand ascent and the context surrounding Broadrick's death

[id108] DAVIDSON, Keir (2018). O Joy for Me! Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the Origins of Fellwalking in the Lake District 1790-1802

Coleridge-focused work, concentrating on the detail of his Lakeland walks. The context offers some good material on the origins of fellwalking.

  • In the second half of the eighteenth century, men such as Dalton, Brown and Grey established the concept of principal views, often centred around lakes. This was all about the appreciation of the picturesque. Thomas West, in 1778, was the first to put a guide book around this [p.24]

  • These tours were generally done by carriage or horseback, often in groups. It was not a walking experience, let a lone a fellwalking one [p.29]

  • A significant chapter on Captain Joseph Budworth (Palmer), perhaps the first man to document ascents of major fells [p.48]. Contains a record of an excellent conversation between Budworth a shepherd guide atop the Langdale Pikes: "wot a broughton yoa here?" / "Curiosity Paul" [pp.46-47]

  • Further Budworth quotation: "I am one of two people in this neighbourhood for their long perambulations" [p.171]

  • Even in the later nineteenth century, guidebooks advised taking guides up the greater fells [p.173], demonstrating fellwalking was still far from a mainstream tourist exploit

  • In conclusion, the author notes it took around 100 years from Colerdige's (then intrepid) walks to fellwalking to become in any may mainstream [as marked, for example, by the formation of walking clubs) [p.173]

[id111] GRIFFIN, A. H. (1968). Roof of England

  • Budworth description [p.129]

  • Early history of Skiddaw, linked to development of tourism and fell-walking [p.160]

[id112] GRIFFIN, A. H. (1978). Freeman of the Hills

No notes.